One of the most memorable events in Islamic History and often a favorite among many
is the Battle of Hattin. On this day, July 04, 1187, Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin. King of Jerusalem, Guy of Lusignan, surrendered to Salahuddin after his defeat. This victory of the Sultan in the Horns of Hattin paved the way for the Muslim reconquest of the city of Jerusalem (on October 2, 1187).
When the Christians were defeated, bringing about an effective end to the Christian occupation of Jerusalem, it led to the launch of the third Christian Crusade in 1189. The Darb al-Hawarnah road, built by the Romans, served as the main east to west passage between the Jordan fords, the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean coast.
By 1174, Sultan Salahuddin had established himself in Damascus. He then spent the next 8 years uniting the Muslim forces against the Crusaders. He also signed a peace treaty with Raymond, Count of Tripoli, for 10 years realizing that this was not the time to fight. In 1187, the Crusaders violated the terms of the truce by attacking a Muslim caravan. The great Sultan swore to avenge the blood of the Muslims.
At the Battle of Hattin, Sultan Salahuddin encountered the combined forces of Raymond III of Tripoli and Guy of Lusignan, King Consort of Jerusalem. In this battle alone the crusader army was destroyed by the motivated army of the Sultan. This caused havoc for the Crusaders and a turning point in World History.
Raynald of Châtillon was captured by Salahuddin. The people of those caravans would tell him about the ceasefire and truce between the Crusaders and the Muslims, but Raynald ignored them and he would also insult The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ before killing and torturing a number of the people. On these charges, the Sultan personally sentenced Raynald to death and executed him. A chilling yet honorable duty that Sultan Salahuddin took upon himself of fulfilling on behalf of the Ummah. The Crusaders were defeated. Sultan Salahuddin spared the life of King Guy telling him that "kings do not kill kings." Sultan Salahuddin also ordered that none of the Christian lords were to be harmed but that all were to be treated with courtesy and respect during their stay.
After everything was set and done, the first Qibla of the Muslims, the third holiest site in Islam, and the former kingdom of Prophet Sulaiman and David (AS), Palestine was once again under Muslim rule. Truly a day to rejoice that was and a sight our eyes long for today.
Upon recapturing the holy city, the Sultan promised not to harm any Jews or Christians living there that want to live peacefully among the Muslims. Nothing shows Salahuddin as a true believer in Allah and His Messenger than his bravery in the battlefield, his justice in the court and his mercy to his subjects. May Allah bless and grant the graceful Sultan a greater kingdom in Jannah. Ameen.